Woman Enterprenure - New Challeges

Research Article


  • Sanghmitra Mishra Assistant Teacher, St.John’s dr. Rajkumar International School


Woman Enterprenure, Women director, feminist theories


Studies on women entrepreneurship have witnessed a rapid growth over the past 30 years. the field is in an adolescence stage with a considerable number of journal articles, literature reviews and books being published on women entrepreneurs. the objective of this study is twofold. first is to examine the number of papers published on women entrepreneurship in 12 established entrepreneurship journals from 1900 to 2016. second is to assess the growth of the field by specifically reviewing literature reviews published from 1980s till 2016 and put forward future research directions. our review findings suggest that there is still a long way to go in terms of building a strong theoretical base for research on women entrepreneurship. the lens of feminist theories can be applied in conjunction with the existing entrepreneurship theories to advance the field. methodologically, past research is dominated by the positivist paradigm and there is a need to embrace innovative methods to build explanations using a constructionist approach. further, studies are mostly restricted within national boundaries primarily being conducted in developed economies. there is a need to build transnational networks and foster professional communities to enable the growth of the field.



Ahl h. Why research on women entrepreneurs needs

new directions. Entrepreneurship theory and practice,

; 30: 595-621.

Ahl h, Marlow S. Exploring the dynamics of gender,

feminism and entrepreneurship: advancing debate to

escape a dead end? Organization 2012; 19: 543-562.

Ahl H, Nelson T. Moving forward: institutional perspectives

on gender and entrepreneurship. International journal

of gender and entrepreneurship 2010; 2; 5-9.

Baker T, Aldrich HE, Liou N. Invisible entrepreneurs:

the neglect of women business owners by mass media

and scholarly journals in the usa. Entrepreneurship and

regional development 1997; 9: 221-238.

Baron RA, Henry RA. Entrepreneurship: the genesis

of organizations. In s. Zedeck (ed.), Handbook of

industrial and organizational psychology. Washington,

dc: american psychological association. 1: 241-273.

Birley S. Female entrepreneurs: are they really different?

Journal of small business management 1989; 27: 32-37.

Bowen DD, Hisrich RD. The female entrepreneur:

a career development perspective. Academy of

management review 1986; 11: 393-407.

Bruni, a., Gherardi, s., & Poggio, b. (2004). Gender and

entrepreneurship: an ethnographic approach. New

york: routledge.

Brush CG. Research on women business owners:past trends, a new perspective and future

directions. Entrepreneurship theory and practice 1992;

: 5-30.

Brush CG, De bruin A, Welter F. A gender-aware

framework for women’s entrepreneurship. International

journal of gender and entrepreneurship 2009; 1: 8-24.

De bruin A, Brush CG, Welter F. Introduction to the

special issue: towards building cumulative knowledge

on women’s entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship theory

and practice 2006; 30: 585-593.

De bruin A, Brush CG, Welter F. Advancing a

framework for coherent research on women’s

entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship theory and

practice 2007; 31: 323-339.

Fischer EM, Reuber AR, Dyke lS. A theoretical

overview and extension of research on sex, gender,

and entrepreneurship. Journal of business venturing

; 8: 151-168.

Gichuki CN, Mulu-Mutuku M, Kinuthia lN. Performance

of women owned enterprises accessing credit from

village credit and savings associations in kenya. Journal

of global entrepreneurship research 2014; 4(1): 1–13.

Goffee R, Scase R. Women in charge: the experiences

of female entrepreneurs. London: george allen and

unwin 1985.

Goyal P, Yadav V. To be or not to be a woman entrepreneur

in a developing country? Psychosociological issues in

human resource management 2014; 2(2); 68-78.

Gundry lK, Ben-Yoseph M, Posig M. Contemporary

perspectives on women’s entrepreneurship: a review

and strategic recommendations. Journal of enterprising

culture 2002; 10: 67-86.

Harzing A. Journal quality list 2016; 57. Accessed from


Henry C, Foss l, Ahl h. Gender and entrepreneurship

research: a review of methodological

approaches. International small business journal 2016;

(3): 217-241.

Hisrich RD,O’brien M. The woman entrepreneur as a

reflection of the type of business. In k.H. Vesper (ed.),

Frontiers of entrepreneurial research. Boston, ma:

babson college. 1981; 54-67.

Hughes KD, Jennings JE, Brush CG et al. Extending

women’s entrepreneurship research in new

directions. Entrepreneurship theory and practice 2012;

; 429-442.

Jennings JE, Brush CG. Research on women

entrepreneurs: challenges to (and from) the broader

entrepreneurship literature? The academy of

management annals 2013; 7(1): 663-715.

Mcdonald S, Gan bC, Fraser SS, Oke A et al. A review

of research methods in entrepreneurship 1985–

International journal of entrepreneurial behavior

& research 2015; 21(3): 291-315.

Mirchandani K. Feminist insight on gendered

work: new directions in research on women and

entrepreneurship. Gender, work and organization

; 6: 224-235.

Moore DP. An examination of present research on the

female entrepreneur-suggested research strategies for

the 1990’s. Journal of Business Ethics 1990; 9: 275-281.

Sarfaraz l, Faghih N, Majd AA. The relationship between

women entrepreneurship and gender equality. Journal

of global entrepreneurship research 2014; 2(1): 1-11.

Sullivan DM, MeeK WR. Gender and entrepreneurship:

a review and process model. Journal of managerial

psychology 2012; 27: 428-458.

Terjesen S, Lloyd A. The 2015 female entrepreneurship

index. Report. The global entrepreneurship and

development institute (gedi) 2015. Https://thegedi.


Accessed 15 aug 2016.

Google scholar World bank. (2009). Enterprises surveys.

Washington dc: world bank.