Binary and Ternary Blended Cement for Minimising Use of Portland Cement: A Review


  • Junead M Student, Department of Civil Engineering, MIT ADT University, Pune.
  • Aniket Patil Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, MIT ADT University, Pune.
  • Gauri Desai Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, MIT ADT University, Pune.
  • Swaraj Jadhav Student, Department of Civil Engineering, MIT ADT University, Pune.


Composite Cement, Ternary Blended Cement, Binary Blended Cement, Supplementary Cementitious Material (SCM), Sustainability


The increasing demand for sustainable cement production has led researchers to focus on developing low-heat, high-strength cement. This study addresses the sustainability challenges associated with Portland cement by exploring the partial replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) with various substitutes, such as Fly Ash (FA), Ground Granulated Blast Slag (GGBS), Limestone Powder, and Silica Fume. These substitutions, implemented in binary or ternary mixes, have demonstrated superior results, prompting widespread adoption in numerous countries and a notable reduction in OPC usage. A primary issue with OPC is the elevated temperature during hydration, a concern effectively addressed by using these substitutes. This paper provides a comprehensive review of state-of-the-art research conducted on the incorporation of different pozzolan items in the formation of binary and ternary blends, evaluating their impact on the properties of both fresh and hardened concrete.
The significance of this review lies in its promotion of acceptable composite cement as a viable step toward achieving sustainability in the construction industry. By mitigating the high-temperature challenges associated with OPC, these composite blends contribute to the overall sustainability of cement production. The study concludes by offering recommendations on determining optimum proportions for composite blends and discussing the positive and negative effects of their substitution for the conventional control mix. Future directions suggest further optimisation efforts and a thorough examination of the long-term performance and environmental implications of these innovative cement alternatives.


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